During my college education I had the opportunity to view surgical procedures at Rochester General Hospital, sketching during the operation as reference for future illustrations. These above illustrations are the first three steps of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, or gallbladder removal. The first step is to separate the fascia to expose the cystic duct and artery, which are then clamped off with metal surgical clips in step two. In step three the surgeon clips/cuts both the duct and artery between the clips so both ends are secure and disconnected. The fall semester of my senior year I had my gallbladder removed, making the opportunity to view this procedure in person very exciting.
More illustrations coming soon!
This is the last step in a laparoscopic nissen fundoplication, with the previous steps coming soon.